But good careers advisors need to look at other factors when giving advice. For example, career counselling is flawed if it fails to allow for the possibility of people adapting to, and changing, their jobs once they are in them. Most organisations attempt through various explicit (induction, mentoring, training, appraisal) and implicit (reliance on observation) techniques to mould behaviour into an acceptable pattern. This means that attitudes and even aptitudes of employees may be changed over the first year of employment, sometimes, but not always, in the direction desired
by the organisation. Thus what was a ‘fit’ may easily and quickly develop into a misfit and vice versa.
Individuals also change their jobs without leaving them. They rearrange furniture, use space and technology differently and personalise different aspects of the job. They can negotiate with colleagues, earn special privileges and use other means to improve their role and output. In this sense, very soon they are doing the job differently from their predecessors, and possibly from the way recommended by the company. However, both adaptation of personal workstyle and attempts to change the way of doing the job are more likely to lead to a higher level of "it" because the
changes are usually all attempts to increase "it"
98What does the writer say about careers advice in the first paragraph?
AThose receiving it have sometimes disagreed with it.
BIt has favoured certain types of people over others.
CSome of the standard advice given has been appropriate.
DIt has acquired a more appropriate title than it used to have.
99What does the writer say about organisations in the first paragraph?
AThe can turn suitable employees into unsuitable ones.
BMany of them have a low opinion of career advisers.
CThey are insensitive to the effect their methods have on employees.